What are Hours of Service (HOS)?

The Hours of Service final rule was published in the Federal Register on December 2011 as a way for the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to monitor working hours of anyone operating a commercial motor vehicle or a CMV with a CDL in the United States. A CMV refers to any vehicle that is used as part of a business that operates in interstate commerce. Designed to eliminate accidents caused by driver fatigue, the ruling determines the maximum number of consecutive hours a commercial truck driver or other types of CMV operators can drive or work before taking a mandatory rest break.

Under the ELD mandate, a US regulation that went into effect in December 2017, operators of commercial motor vehicles are required to use electronic logging devices to track Hours of Service (HOS). Electronic logging devices, also known as electronic logbooks or e-logs, connect to a vehicle's engine and automatically record driving time, providing a reliable way to collect HOS data. They replace paper logs which were historically used in the trucking industry to record Hours of Service.

Anyone found to be in violation of the Hours of Service rules runs the risk of negatively impacting their carrier's safety rating or even being put out of service for a certain period of time.

What is the driving limit for CMV drivers?

The Hours of Service regulation limits the number of driving hours per day and the number of driving and working on-duty hours per week. Driving limit or cycle limit restrictions include:

14-hour shift limit

Drivers have a 14-hour window to drive a maximum of 11 hours and are required to take a 30-minute break every 8 hours. The 14-hour driving limit restricts drivers from driving any longer than the fourteenth consecutive hour on duty, after 10 hours off duty.

11-hour driving limit

A driver is limited to a maximum of 11 hours of driving after 10 consecutive hours off duty.

60/70-hour limit

The HOS rules cap driving time to 60 hours per 7-day period and a 70-hour time limit for a span of 8 days. This means drivers cannot continue to drive once they've reached 60/70 hours of on-duty time in 7/8 consecutive days.

34-hour restart

The 34-hour restart rule gives commercial motor vehicle drivers the opportunity to reset their 60-hour or 70-hour clocks back to zero. Drivers can take advantage of the rule at any time by taking at least 34 consecutive hours off duty or in a sleeper berth.

Rest breaks

Drivers are required to take a 30-minute rest break after continuously driving for 8 hours. Rest breaks can be logged as either off-duty time or can be taken as time in the sleeper berth at a truck stop or other rest area.

Sleeper berth ruling

A sleeper berth refers to a cab in the back of a truck that includes a reclining seat or bed that drivers can use for rest while they're on the road. Drivers can use the time spent in the sleeper berth to count towards their mandatory rest-limits or their off-duty time.

The driver can spend 10 consecutive hours of off-duty time in their sleeper berth to meet rest-break requirements or extend a 14-hour on-duty period if they’re using the split sleeper rule. Furthermore, a driver can use the ‘split sleeper berth provision’ to split their time, as long as they spend a total of at least 8 hours in the sleeper berth and if each of the two work periods lasts at least 2 hours.

With the split sleeper berth provision, drivers can split the required 10 consecutive hours of off-duty time into two periods—allowing drivers to adjust schedules to accommodate things like delivery drop-off times or drowsiness. In order for a driver to successfully take split sleeper berth time, they must fulfill the following requirements:

  • One shift must be between two and eight hours and can be spent in the sleeper berth, off-duty, or personal conveyance (or a combination of the three).
  • The other shift must be between eight and 10 hours, spent only in the sleeper berth. Keep in mind that if you spend 10 or more hours in the sleeper berth, it can be constituted as a 10-hour off-duty break to a 14-hour driving period.
  • The two breaks can be taken in any order and by completing both the 2/8 hour period and the 8/10 hour period, drivers start a new 14-hour driving window.
  • Since the 14-hour driving window does not start after the end of the second period, the split sleeper berth is not a full 10-hour reset; it simply moves the start time of the 14-hour driving window.

Who is subject to Hours of Service rules?

The Hours of Service regulation applies to any commercial motor vehicle operator in the United States. A commercial motor vehicle, outside of belonging to a company or corporation, is defined as any vehicle that satisfies one of the following conditions:

  • Weighs (including any load) 10,001 lbs or more
  • Transports hazardous materials (property-carrying vehicle) in a quantity requiring a hazardous material placard
  • Transports 16 or more passengers (passenger-carrying vehicle), including the driver, without compensation
  • Transports 9 or more passengers (passenger-carrying vehicle), including the driver, for compensation

How to avoid Hours of Service penalties

HOS regulations are strictly enforced by the Department of Transportation (DOT), but there are a number of ways to satisfy the ruling's requirements and even certain ELD exemptions.

100 air-mile short-haul exemption

The short-haul exemption applies to CDL drivers who complete a daily delivery or only travel short distances during their workday. To meet this exemption, drivers must:

  • Operate within a 100 air-mile radius of their daily starting location
  • Start and end the day at the same location
  • End the workday within 12 hours
  • Have at least 10 hours off-duty between each 12-hour shift

150 air-mile radius

The 150 air-mile exemption applies to non-CDL drivers who:
  • Operate within a 150 air-mile radius of their work’s primary location
  • Return to that primary work location at the end of each duty shift
Additionally, they must not:
  • Drive any vehicle that requires a CDL
  • Drive after 14 hours of coming on duty on 5 days of any period of 7 consecutive days
  • Drive after 16 hours of coming on duty on 2 days of any period of 7 consecutive days

Adverse driving conditions exemption

This exemption allows drivers to extend the maximum driving limit by two hours when certain conditions such as weather changes or road closures occur.

Learn more about existing and proposed ELD exemptions here.

Electronic logging device (ELD) solutions

The best way to prevent Hours of Service violations is to use an ELD compliance solution.

Samsara's electronic logging device is an FMCSA-approved ELD that connects to the engine's OBD port and automatically collects vehicle data throughout the day. This, combined with the HOS electronic log book in the Samsara driver app, provides fleets with an accurate and complete read of their compliance. Whether you're an owner-operator or a fleet manager, Samsara can help your business gain visibility into your driver's hours of service.

Through the Samsara dashboard, compliance managers can review the Hours of Service report to see drivers' real-time driving status, the amount of time until their rest break, and the number of hours left in their driving period. This report will automatically flag any driver approaching an Hours of Service violation.

To keep your fleet compliant and avoid ELD violations, it's important to stay up to date on current ELD news and announcements. To help, we've compiled the latest news to keep you informed on the most recent ELD insights and ELD exemptions Congress has requested since the mandate launched.

Learn more about Samsara's ELD compliance solution